WHO WAS DAVID?
“David was the second king of Israel who sought after God with all his heart.”
Accounts of his life are written in I and II Samuel, I Kings, I Chronicles, as well as references to him in the New Testament scriptures. He had a wide breadth of experiences as: a shepherd boy, skill on the lyre, a brave warrior, a prophet speaking/singing God’s Word, a faithful friend, a refugee seeking safety from a deranged King Saul and David’s son Absalom, and a king over Israel. Through hard and good times, God blessed David’s endeavors, claiming he was “a man after God’s own heart.” (Acts 13:22)
David was known as “a man of valor, a man of war, prudent in speech, a man of good presence, and the LORD was with him.” (I Sam. 16:18). When we look at David’s actions and words in Scripture we find God cherishes David because of his humble spirit: loving God, obeying His commandments, and treating men well. David upheld righteousness and God was praised and glorified.
David was born the youngest of eight children to Jesse the Bethlehemite, the grandson of Boaz and Ruth. Jesse was a farmer and sheep breeder in Bethlehem. At God’s direction, Samuel the prophet bid Jesse to a sacrifice banquet to anoint the next king. God said, “I will show you what you shall do. And you shall anoint for me him whom I declare to you. For the LORD sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the LORD looks on the heart.” (I Samuel 16:7)
Why did God love and give David success?
How does God see you as His follower?
“WHAT DOES ‘DAVID’ MEAN?”
“The name David means ‘One Who is Loved’.”
In the Hebrew culture, names are important and foreshadow the individual’s future. We will see that David’s heart (mindset, emotions and motivation) will mirror God’s heart and mind. David’s faults/sins are not hidden from men or God; but as David repents, God graciously forgives and continues guiding and protecting David.
As a youth, David takes on the job as a shepherd of his father’s sheep, leading them to green pastures and still waters for nourishment and protecting them from bears and lions who would kill the flock. David loved each sheep, cared for them, and knew each by name. In the future, Jesus would speak of Himself as the Good Shepherd who exhibited these qualities toward His people. Writing Psalm 23, David speaks of God as the Good Shepherd of his soul.
In anger, sorrow, or praise, David shared his total being with his Creator. David spoke on many topics: his vow of conduct before the LORD (Ps. 101); his observation of good and evil men choosing life or death as their destiny (Ps. 1); God’s glory and voice displayed in His creation (Ps. 19); his thirst for God (Ps. 63), etc. Some psalms/songs are messianic in nature, speaking to the future when God would send the Messiah and about Christ’s suffering, crucifixion and resurrection (Ps. 22; 31:5).
During this time, King Saul’s success was waning in Israel’s wars with surrounding heathen nations. Saul’s heart had changed from being humble to proud. Against God’s command, Saul chose to: offer an unlawful sacrifice to God, not kill the enemy King Agag, spare the best of the animals and all that was good instead of devoting them to destruction, and inquire of a medium of Endor. To which, God told Samuel the prophet, “I regret that I have made Saul king, for he has turned back from following me and has not performed my commandments.” (I Sam. 14:10)
When the Spirit of the LORD left King Saul and a harmful spirit from the LORD tormented him, David was chosen to play his lyre, so that the harmful spirit would leave Saul for a time. Saul also loved David and promoted him to be Saul’s armor-bearer.
Later Goliath, the Philistine champion soldier, taunted the Israelite army to choose one man to fight him; and whoever defeated the opponent, his nation would be the victor and the other nation would go into servitude. David rose to the challenge, crying out, “Who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God. The LORD who delivered me from the paw of the lion and bear will deliver me from the hand of this Philistine!”
With one sling and a few stones, David confronted Goliath a saying, “I come to you in the name of the LORD of hosts. This day the LORD will deliver you into my hand…that all this assembly may know that the LORD saves not with sword and spear. For the battle is the LORD’s, and He will give you into our hands.” (I Sam. 17) Thereafter, Saul set David over the men of war, being successful wherever King Saul sent him.
When the women sang: “Saul has struck down his thousands, and David his ten thousands,” Saul thought, “What more can he have but the kingdom?” The harmful spirit rushed upon Saul. Enraged with jealousy because the LORD was with David, Saul sent spies to locate David’s hideouts and he chased after David to kill him. By now David had amassed a following of men who were in distress, in debt, or bitter in their soul, as well as his brothers and all his father’s house in evading Saul. David continually inquired of the LORD where he should hide, using the ephod Ahimelech the priest had given him.
Though Saul hounded his every step, David still held fast to God’s command to respect King Saul’s anointing, even when tempted by his cohorts. At ‘Wildgoats Rock’, Saul entered the cave to relieve himself…where David and his men were hiding. David’s men said, “Here is the day of which the LORD said to you, ‘Behold, I will give your enemy into your hand, and you shall do to him as it shall seem good to you.’” David’s heart struck him when he cut off a corner of Saul’s robe. In repentance, David said to his men, “The LORD forbid that I should do such a thing to my lord, the LORD’s anointed….” David would not permit them to attack Saul.
In humility, David called out to Saul, “After whom has the king of Israel come out? After a dead dog? After a flea?” Saul exclaimed, “You are more righteous than I, for you have repaid me good, whereas I have repaid you evil. You did not kill me when the LORD put me into your hands. Swear to me that you will not cut off my offspring after me, and that you will not destroy my name out of my father’s house.” David swore this to Saul. (I Sam. 24)
Another time, Abishai wanted to kill Saul, but David resisted saying, “Who can put out his hand against the LORD’s anointed and be guiltless? The LORD will strike him, or his day will come to die, or he will go down into battle and perish.” To Saul, David said, “The LORD rewards every man for his righteousness and his faithfulness…may (God) deliver me out of all tribulation.” (1 Sam. 26)
Finally, David moved to the land of the Philistines and befriended King Achish of Gath (Goliath’s hometown) for security from Saul. Achish trusted David, made him his bodyguard for life, and gave him Ziklag to live in. Achish said to David, “As the LORD lives, you have been honest…I have found nothing wrong in you…I know you are as blameless in my sight as an angel of God.” (1 Sam. 27)
Saul and Jonathan were killed in battle by the Philistines. David honored his vows to Saul and Jonathan to ““Show…the steadfast love of the LORD… (and) not cut off your steadfast love from my house forever” by sparing the life of Jonathan’s son, Mephibosheth. David also promised Mephibosheth, “I will restore to you all the land of Saul…and you shall eat at my table always.”
The house of Judah anointed David king over them and he reigned seven years and six months, while Ish-bosheth, Saul’s son, reigned over Israel for two years. At his death, all the tribes of Israel anointed David king over the unified nation of Israel in Jerusalem. David called Jerusalem ‘the city of David’. “And David became greater and greater, for the LORD, the God of hosts, was with him.” (2 Sam. 5)
Yet, David dealt with sin in his life, especially his: decree of a census of Israel, committing adultery and murder in the house of Uriah, and guidance of his sons who were guilty of fornication and usurping David’s kingship. In humility David repented, accepting the consequences, left Jerusalem, and bore Abishai’s cursing. David still looked to the LORD, saying, “Behold, my son seeks my life…let (Abishai) curse, for the LORD has told him to. It may be that the LORD will look on the wrong done to me, and that the LORD will repay me with good for his cursing.” (2 Sam. 16)
When David’s son Absalom is killed, David returns to Jerusalem to reign as king. He demands that his first wife, Micah, daughter of Saul, be returned to him…maybe to prove David’s kingship descended from royal blood and he had the right to claim kingship over Israel.
What responsibilities did David assume in his life and why?
Fill in the blank: “The LORD rewards every man for his _________ and his __________.
What responsibilities have you taken on in God’s kingdom?
HOW DOES DAVID POINT TO JESUS?
At the time when God and Abraham made a covenant, God promised, “I have made you the father of a multitude of nations…and kings shall come from you. And I will establish my covenant between me and you and your offspring…for an everlasting covenant…to give you all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession, and I will be their God.” (Gen. 17:1-8) Matthew records the genealogy of Jesus, the King of Kings, through sonship/descendancy: from Abraham, through David, to Jesus the Messiah. (Matt. 1:1-18)
Paul spoke to the men of Israel about their history, affirming, “The God of this people Israel chose our fathers and made the people great…He raised up David to be their king, of whom he testified and said, ‘I have found in David the son of Jesse a man after my heart, who will do all my will.’ Of this man’s offspring God has brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, as He promised” (Acts 13:16-23)
Jesus confirmed this to his hearers, “For I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of Him who sent me.” (John 6:38) “I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me…I always do the things that are pleasing to Him.” (John 8:28-29)
When the LORD had given him rest from all his surrounding enemies, David thought to build a house of cedar for the LORD and place the ark within it. Through the prophet Nathan, the LORD prophesied of a Messianic dynasty that would come through David’s lineage, saying, “I have been with you wherever you went and have cut off all your enemies from before you. I will make for you a great name…The LORD will make you a house. (When you die), I will raise up your offspring after you…your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever….” (2nd Samuel 7:9-13)
Solomon, David’s son, was chosen by God to build the temple. But “(David) made clear to Solomon in writing, from the hand of the LORD, all the work to be done according to the plan.” (1 Chron. 28:11-19)
SO HOW DOES DAVID POINT TO JESUS?
Both wanted to build a lasting house for God.
There was no king like David until Jesus.
Jesus is David’s promised successor.
Recite three scriptures proving David’s lineage to Christ.
Who are the three witnesses to Christ’s lineage?
Why was there no king like David until Jesus?